The Vladimir Tower
The Vladimir Tower was one of the citadel's earliest gatehouses. The gateway Church of Prince Vladimir was built over it in 1311, remains of which were unearthed during excavations in 1945. The tower is similar in design to the Saviour Tower. Both have lost their upper tier and both have retained the grooves where the portcullis was suspended ready to be lowered against attack. In addition, it had a pair of heavy oaken gates the hinges of which can still be seen today. Like the Saviour Tower, the Vladimir one has a tall arch on the citadel side, which appeared after the gateway church was removed. The opposite side is decorated with a row of triangular recesses and ornamental brickwork, typical of Novgorodian architecture. The arches of windows are made of brick. There is a fresco of St Nicholas in a niche in the centre of the facade. The tower has been restored by now.